Safety studies can be performed both cultured cells and in animal models. Cell studies include, e.g. viability assays, morphological investigations, measurement of RNA and protein expression of biomarkers (PCR, Western blots, immunocytochemistry). These studies can be done with non-differentiated and differentiated primary and secondary ocular cells. In vivo safety studies utilize similar techniques as described for pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (e.g. electroretinography, ocular coherence topography, immunohistochemistry, in vivo fluorometry). Safety studies can be performed with mice, rats and rabbits.
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